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THE WINTER WAY OF ST. JAMES - THE ROUTE BY RIBEIRA SACRA

THE WINTER WAY OF ST. JAMES - THE ROUTE BY RIBEIRA SACRA

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(Last update: 04-18-2021)
 
INDEX - CAMINO DE SANTIAGO
COMMON TO ALL ROUTES
INDEX - CAMINO DE SANTIAGO
COMMON TO ALL ROUTES
INDEX - CAMINO DE SANTIAGO
COMMON TO ALL ROUTES
INDEX - CAMINO DE SANTIAGO
COMMON TO ALL ROUTES
REQUIREMENTS FOR A ROUTE TO BE DECLARED CAMINO DE SANTIAGO

For a route to be officially declared the Camino de Santiago, it is considered necessary to present documents in which the following elements are justified:

  • The route has a documented history of the passage of pilgrims.

  • The route has a documented history of welcoming walkers through hospitals or shelters.

  • Other documents that favor the official declaration are: there were Roman roads before they were pilgrimage routes, archaeological remains, specific signs, cults and places related to the pilgrimage have been found (toponymy, local traditions, archival documentation, ordeporic literature (about the events and things seen during a trip, stories of pilgrims that are preserved), literary texts, historical cartography, etc.

RECONOCIMIENTO OFICIAL DEL CAMINO DE INV
RECONOCIMIENTO OFICIAL DEL CAMINO DE INV

For a route to be officially declared the Camino de Santiago, it is considered necessary to present documents in which the following elements are justified:

  • The route has a documented history of the passage of pilgrims.

  • The route has a documented history of welcoming walkers through hospitals or shelters.

  • Other documents that favor the official declaration are: there were Roman roads before they were pilgrimage routes, archaeological remains, specific signs, cults and places related to the pilgrimage have been found (toponymy, local traditions, archival documentation, ordeporic literature (about the events and things seen during a trip, stories of pilgrims that are preserved), literary texts, historical cartography, etc.

 
 
JUSTIFICATION OF THE VARIANT BY "A CUBELA"

The team led by Ramón Izquierdo Perrín established the following route between Quiroga and Monforte:

  Quiroga - San Clodio - Augas Mestas - Torbeo - A Cubela - Barxa - Vilachá - Rozavales - Villamarín - Monforte

Initially, the Quiroga - San Clodio - Augas Mestas - Torbeo - A Cubela sections were signposted and continue to be signposted as Camino de Invierno. It happens that to go from A Cubela to Barxa you have to cross the Sil river. From the Middle Ages to the middle of the 20th century, there have been one or two boats to cross the river. The increasing depopulation of the entire area since the 60s of the 20th century has caused the boat to disappear. During the management process for the officialization of the Winter Way, no City Council involved has wanted to take over the management of a boat to cross the Sil and for that reason the Route was devised: Quiroga - Barxa de Lor - Puebla del Brollón - Monforte . Although the Xunta de Galicia has not yet established the Official Route, this last route is the one promoted by the affected municipal authorities, they will know why. It is a stage that leaves the course of the Sil river and all those who have traveled it consider it disproportionate (more than 38 km) and with landscapes that detract from those of the rest of the stages.

In the following sections, I will justify why you should return to the initial route and as long as a boat is not put to cross the Sil, I will propose another shorter route (31 km) that follows the course of the Sil river for 14 km, with much more fundamentals historical and with much more beautiful landscapes than the one promoted by the municipal authorities.

I will also propose additional routes to visit the meanders of A Cubela and Barxa, one of the most beautiful places in Galicia and Spain, as well as an authentic botanical and fauna garden.

ROZAVALES EN UNA RUTA MEDIEVAL DEL VINO

En varios documentos medievales procedentes de los archivos de los monasterios de San Vicente del Pino (en Monforte) y de Montederramo se comprueba que, las riberas de Val do Frade y O Ibedo pertenecían al monasterio de Montederramo y viñas de la Ribeira de Os Lagares pertenecían a San Vicente. Los vinos elaborados se transportaron a los citados monasterios, a Montederramo pasando por la parroquia de Torbeo después de cruzar el Sil en barcas desde Barxa a la Cubela y a San Vicente pasando por la parroquia de Rozavales.

 
LA HUELLA ROMANA ENTRE AUGAS MESTAS Y LA CUBELA

Los romanos conquistaron Galicia hacia el año 25 a.C., sus huellas han llegado hasta nuestros días a través de la lengua, de edificios, de infraestructuras, de costumbres y decenas de minas de oro. Según Plinio el Viejo, “las montañas de Hispania, que son mayormente áridas y estériles y no producen nada, por fuerza tenían que producir oro”. Según Estrabón, “los ríos arrastran oro y las mujeres cavan y después de quitar las partes más gruesas con una especie de cesto entretejido, lo lavan en bateas”.

Un informe de Ancient World Mapping Center, el Stoa Consortium y el Institute for the Study of the Ancient World muestra que en España y Portugal, los romanos explotaron un número de minas de oro superior a cualquier otra provincia romana, y gran parte de ellas estaban en Galicia. Entre ellas, descubrieron que entre las Médulas y La Cubela (A Covela) había ricos filones auríferos que explotaron durante dos siglos y medio. Gran parte del oro extraído en Galicia circuló a lo largo del imperio en forma de monedas llamadas “áureos”.

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Actualmente, mediante el sistema LiDAR (teledetección laser acoplado a un avión o un dron) se escanea el terreno con la referencia geográfica suministrada por el sistema GPS.  Los datos obtenidos se representan mediante nubes de puntos, que mediante un programa adecuado permite construir el modelo cartográfico de una zona y examinar ciertas formas, como antiguos embalses o canales. Se pueden visualizar restos arqueológicos bajo las cubiertas de vegetación o zonas intensamente roturadas. De esta manera, se ha detectado el complejo sistema utilizado por los romanos para extraer el oro: galerías, canales, embalses y desvío de ríos.

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No existen datos precisos sobre las cantidades de oro que obtuvieron de las minas de la Gallaecia romana pero:

  • Según Cayo Plinio Segundo, se sacó en algún momento el 10% de los ingresos totales del imperio romano.

  • Según algunos estudios, en las Médulas fueron extraídos 96.000 kilogramos de oro.

  • Según investigadores del CSIC se extrajeron 190 toneladas de oro de las minas del noroeste español.

Se ha comprobado que el volumen de tierra explotado es mucho mayor del que se conocía. Tras sustraer el oro que había en los sedimentos superficiales, la explotación continuaba hasta alcanzar las rocas con los filones de cuarzo aurífero que había debajo.

MÉTODOS UTILIZADOS POR LOS ROMANOS PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ORO

Los romanos utilizaron diversas técnicas en la extracción del oro y se ha comprobado que no fueron los primeros en utilizarlas.

Expertos en la materia, consideran que los sistemas de transporte y almacenamiento de agua se copiaron de los utilizados por la civilización egipcia en siglos anteriores.

Se han identificado tres métodos diferentes para obtener el oro dependiendo del material en que se encontraba:

LAVADO DE ARENAS

Cuando el oro se encontraba en las arenas de los ríos, llegando a realizarse el desvío del cauce de los ríos para trabajar directamente sobre el aluvión. Esto se hizo en Montefurado.

Los romanos sabían que el Sil arrastraba oro y para facilitar las tareas de extracción decidieron secar un meandro largo y estrecho. En la zona estrecha del meandro, hicieron un túnel de 120 metros de longitud, 19 de ancho y 17 de alto, para desviar el cauce del Sil. De esta manera secaron 2,5 Km del cauce original.

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YACIMIENTOS PRIMARIOS O EXCAVACIÓN DE MINAS

Se realizaban pozos y galerías para llegar a las betas de oro. Sacaban el material por galerías secundarias que luego machacaban para posteriormente someterlo a un sistema de tostación con el que obtenían el oro.

Se ha utilizado en diversos lugares de Los municipios de Quiroga Y Ribas de Sil. Como en El Covallón y la Toca en el Caurel.

Según el arqueólogo Luis Francisco López González en los municipios de Quiroga y Ribas de Sil hay más de 100 yacimientos explotados por los romanos.

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YACIMIENTOS SECUNDARIOS O RUINA MONTIUM

Fue descrito por Plinio el Viejo. Se usaban grandes cantidades de agua para derrumbar amplias extensiones de terreno montañoso en el que se había comprobado que había oro. Los mineros excavaban extensos canales desde zonas de abastecimiento natural de agua o presas artificiales. Dichos canales desembocaban en túneles, tanto verticales como horizontales y comunicados entre sí, excavados en la montaña que quería desintegrarse. Los túneles estaban entubados con maderos a los cuales se les prendía fuego para elevar la temperatura de la roca y abriendo el paso al agua, gran cantidad de agua entraba en tromba en las galerías, comprimiendo el aire del interior y erosionando las paredes de las mismas. El efecto provocado era similar al de un explosivo. El terreno se derrumbaba y el agua arrastraba los conglomerados en los que estaba incrustado el oro por galerías secundarias, se retiraban las piedras y cantos rodados y se conducían los lodos hasta los canales de lavado para obtener el oro.

En este caso, se utilizaban las aguas de los ríos Sil y Lor.

Las piedras y cantos rodados se apilaban en el exterior junto a los canales de lavado, formándose  grandes depósitos, conocidos tradicionalmente como medos o muradellas.

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Tradicionalmente se creía que esta técnica había sido creada por la ingeniería romana pero, el estudio de diversos castros astures de la Edad de Hierro, ha demostrado que sus defensas fueron excavadas mediante la técnica del Ruina Montium.

Se ha utilizado en Las Médulas, en Covas y en La Cubela.

MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"

La minería aurífera de los romanos transformó el territorio y cambió su estructura socioeconómica.

En Galicia, la administración romana se centró fundamentalmente en las zonas auríferas, la colonización se adaptó a las explotaciones mineras, atendidas principalmente por miles de hombres libres, en su mayor parte peregrinos, que residían con sus familias en los castros próximos. Unos se dedicaban a la actividad agraria de las mejores sierras para abastecer a los mineros, otros proporcionaban las materias primas y manufacturas necesarias para el trabajo que se realizaba, por último los mineros residían en poblados  y núcleos mineros.

Entre Augas Mestas y la Cubela se pueden localizar los restos de explotaciones mineras de oro realizadas por los romanos en Covas, en Castro de Abaixo y en A Cubela.

MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"

El yacimiento de Covas en la parroquia de Augas Mestas, es de tipo secundario, los filones auríferos se hallaban en aluviones distribuidos en diversas terrazas fluviales. Actualmente, existen un conjunto de galerías a medio excavar que parecen haber sido abandonadas de forma repentina.

La mina tenía dos frentes de explotación, para visitarlos, del centro del pueblo sale un camino que a unos cincuenta metros de la última vivienda, se bifurca para dar acceso a ambos lugares, situados a distintas alturas.

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En el frente inferior de explotación hay dos galerías excavadas, una de ellas fue sellada por orden de la Xunta pero el muro con que se tapió la entrada se derrumbó posteriormente, la galería está obstruida por numerosas piedras. La otra galería está cegada por un desprendimiento pero una grieta permite acceder a ella. Un vecino la ha recorrido y dice que la galería principal tiene una de longitud de unos 500 metros y de ella salen cuatro o cinco galerías secundarias parcialmente cegadas por derrumbes.

En el frente superior de explotación quedan restos de pequeñas galerías y depósitos de cantos rodados (muradellas) una de las cuales posee un gran volumen y altura.

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MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"

La aldea de Castro de Abaixo  se asienta en parte sobre una antigua explotación minera de la que quedan grandes cantidades de cantos rodados.

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MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"

La Cubela está situada sobre una pequeña llanura que no es natural, está justo encima de una explotación minera aurífera. Era una loma de montaña que fue derribada por la minería romana con la técnica de “ruina montium”. Según se mira a la aldea desde el meandro, la parte derecha era el frente de explotación que no se ve por la maleza existente.

El Sil hace miles o más bien millones de años, discurría por zonas diferentes a las actuales y su cauce ha variado mucho a través de los siglos. En épocas remotas dicho cauce discurría por encima de la aldea de A Cubela y al cambiar su curso dejó al descubierto los depósitos de minerales y sobre todo los de oro.

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MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"

Queda demostrado que existieron minas romanas entre Augas Mestas y La Cubela. Es evidente que para transportar el material de obra , el mineral y los obreros se necesitaba un camino o calzada romana.

Hace unos años cuando por obras en el embalse de San Esteban bajaron grandemente el nivel de las aguas embalsadas, Antonio López Casas y su mujer María José Aira Pumar obtuvieron unos vídeos en los que se ve un empedrado que podría ser una calzada romana. En el siguiente vídeo se ve una pequeña secuencia de los mismos.

 
FROM RONCESVALLES TO ROZAVALES
BRIEF NOTES ON RONCESVALLES

It is confirmed that pilgrims from beyond the Pyrenees have arrived in Compostela since the 10th century.

The foundation and development of Roncesvalles are directly linked to the Camino de Santiago.

Santa María de Roncesvalles was the most emblematic hospital and care center on the entire Camino de Santiago and together with Rome, Jerusalem and Compostela it has been one of the most significant places for Christian pilgrims.

The Codex Calixtinus was written in the middle of the twelfth century and in Book V the main routes that crossed France are described: the Turonense originating in Tours, the Lemovicense beginning in Limoges, the Podense beginning in Le Puy and the Toulouse one that linked in Tolosa with the road to Rome. The first three converged in Ostabat before crossing the Pyrenees through the Ibañeta pass (1066m.); the fourth was done by Somport (1632m.).

From Ostabat, past San Jean Pied de Port, the pilgrims divided into two groups, some of them ascended little by little to the Lepoeder pass and others went through the Valcarlos valley before tackling the steep slopes that lead to Ibañeta. In the vicinity of San Salvador de Ibañeta the two roads met.

Mapa de los caminos de Santiago en Franc

Following the maxim "I was a guest and you received me" (Gospel of San Mateo 25, 35), hospitals and monasteries began to be founded to attend spiritually and physically to the pilgrims who passed through the Ibañeta pass.

There are opinions that defend that the Hospital and Monastery of Roncesvalles were created before the 12th century but there are only unreliable quotes. Although shelters and churches are documented in the eleventh century, none of them was a predecessor of the one in Roncesvalles. For example, in the 11th century there were a church and hospital in the

.

Ronzasvals population (current Burguete)

that after successive donations in 1219 it was donated to the canons of Roncesvalles.

There was also the "noble and royal monastery" of Ibañeta, consecrated to San Salvador, which ended up being acquired by the priory of Roncesvalles in 1271.

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From the beginning of the 12th century, the Ibañeta monastery and the Ronzasvals hospital began to be insufficient to attend the growing number of pilgrims, therefore,

.

Sancho de Larrosa (he is also referred to as Sancho de Rosas)

Bishop of Pamplona from 1122 until his death in 1142, founded in 1127 (according to most authors) a "reception house for pilgrims and the needy" for which he had the collaboration of King Alfonso-I el Batallador, nobles and individuals. The Letter of Foundation and Dowry of the hospital and church of Roncesvalles affirms that thousands of pilgrims died due to snow storms and the attacks of wolves. Initially located "at the apex of the mountain called Roncesvalles", in 1132 it was moved to its current location at the foot of the hill.

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Sancho de Larrosa created a brotherhood of laity and ecclesiastics (monks of the rule of San Agustín) and wrote some Ordinations (Dispositions) that would ensure its good government. The brotherhood was not enough and in 1135 a collegiate church of canons was placed at the head of the hospital, presided over by Prior Sancho.

In 1137 Pope Innocent II took Roncesvalles under his protection. The Codex Calixtino describes that in the 1140s it was fully operational and the religiosity of the time led to large donations to the hospital from all of Western Europe. Buildings were built for the hospital, the church, cloister and dependencies for the monks, a parish for the neighbors, warehouses, a funeral home with a chapel for the dead. Over the centuries, new buildings have been built that in some cases destroyed the original ones.

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Interior de la Colegiata de Roncesvalles

From the beginning, the community of canons worshiped Santa María, head of the temple. Devotion to the Pyrenean Virgin spread throughout the Navarrese kingdom and beyond the borders.

.

Donations were made from all over Western Europe:

Aragon, Guipúzcoa, La Rioja, Castilla, León, Valencia, Andalusia, Portugal, Gascony, Languedoc, Burgundy, Champagne, England and Italy. As a result, Roncesvalles had houses, for example, in Zaragoza, Soria, Valencia, Seville, Toulouse, Montpellier, London, Bologna

and in the parish of Rozavales.

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THE CABILDO OF COMPOSTELA INVEST IN FRENCH TERRITORY

Entre 1332 y 1335 se celebra un juicio entre el Obispado de Bayona y el Monasterio de Roncesvalles.

El obispado de Bayona presenta una demanda contra los canónigos de Roncesvalles, los cuales para defenderse presentan 13 escrituras. En la primera de ellas, se demuestra que, desde el 22 de agosto de 1189,  la iglesia y el hospital de San Vicente ya no pertenecen a la abadía de Leyre pues, junto con la iglesia de San Miguel se entregan al arzobispado de Compostela. Los hermanos del hospital hicieron votos idénticos a los de la Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén, pusieron la cruz de Santiago en sus hábitos y pasaron a obedecer al representante de Compostela en Gascuña.

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El pergamino de la Carta del juicio ha sido reproducido en un libro por V. Dubarat y J. B. Daranatz.

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En la segunda escritura se demuestra que, el 10 de julio de 1246 se produce un intercambio de dos propiedades entre el arzobispo de Compostela y Roncesvalles. Compostela entrega la iglesia de San Vicente de Cisa, situada cerca de San Miguel el Viejo en la Baja Navarra, con su hospital y todas sus pertenencias, a cambio de Santa María de Salvador situada cerca de Monforte en la diócesis de Lugo y donada a Roncesvalles por el rey Alfonso IX de León, con todas sus posesiones y derechos.

THE CABILDO OF COMPOSTELA INVEST IN FRENCH TERRITORY

In the mid-12th century and to promote the pilgrimage to Compostela, the chapter of the Cathedral of Santiago settled in French Gascony, maintaining a representative there. On August 22, 1189, half of the church of San Vicente de Pied de Mont was donated to Santiago de Compostela. The brothers from the Saint Vincent de Cize hospital, attached to the church of San Miguel, became dependent on Compostela.

A bull from Pope Alexander III confirmed the aforementioned dependence

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In the mid-12th century and to promote the pilgrimage to Compostela, the chapter of the Cathedral of Santiago settled in French Gascony, maintaining a representative there. On August 22, 1189, half of the church of San Vicente de Pied de Mont was donated to Santiago de Compostela. The brothers from the Saint Vincent de Cize hospital, attached to the church of San Miguel, became dependent on Compostela.

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THE PARISH CHURCH OF ROZAVALES
BELONGED TO THE ORDER OF RONCESVALLES

In a document preserved in Tumbo B of the Cathedral of Santiago, of which there is an edition published by María Teresa González Balasch in 2004 and whose publication reference is:

GONZÁLEZ BALASCH, María T., Tumbo B de la Catedral de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Cabildo de la SAMI Catedral - Seminario de Estudios Gallegos, 2004, pp. 107-108.

And the signature of the volume and document in the Archive is: ACS, CF33, fols. 16v-17r.

it is manifested that

On April 17, 1193, King Alfonso IX (great promoter of the Camino de Santiago)

grants the Church of Santa María del Salvador to the Roncesvalles Hospital.

.

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In the Latin text, it is said that the donation took place in the year 1231, but since until the 15th century in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula it was used to start counting the years in the year 38 BC, it will be necessary to subtract 38 to obtain the current accounting, therefore, the donation occurred in 1193 AD, which is already done by María Teresa González Balash at the beginning of the document.

When putting the date they refer to the place as "Pinum" that is to say "Pine" which is the name that Monforte had until Alfonso IX changed it to Monfort. Which the Benedictines of Monforte did not do, since the monastery has continued to be called "San Vicente del Pino".

On the other hand, the document, in Latin, refers to Roncesvalles as "Roscidavale" and calls the Church Santa María del Salvador.

A little further down you can see a document in which it is said that this church is located

in the episcopate of Lugo, land of Lemos, in a place near Montem fortem.

SCORE BY NICANOR RIELO CARBALLO
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The ethnographer and expert in Romanesque art in the province of Lugo, Nicanor Rielo Carballo in the work "Artistic inventory of Lugo and its province" published between 1975 and 1983, carried out in collaboration with Elías Valiña Sampedro (researcher and promoter of the routes to Santiago), Santos San Cristóbal Sebastián and José Manuel González Reboredo, mentions a tradition according to which, in Rozavales there was a pilgrim hospital

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EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE ARCHBISHOP OF COMPOSTELA AND THE PRIOR OF RONCESVALLES OF THE CHURCH OF ROZAVALES WITH A FRENCH CHURCH

On September 23, 2020 at 7:59 p.m., I receive an email from Bertrand Saint Macary (president of the Association of Friends of the Camino de Santiago in the Atlantic Pyrenees) in which I realize that there is a deed of 10 July 1246, by which, there is an exchange of two properties between the Archbishop of Compostela and the Prior of Santa María de Roncesvalles, by which the Archbishop of Compostela and his chapter assign or exchange with the Prior and the community de Roncesvalles, the church of San Vicente with its hospital, its rights and all its dependencies, located next to the old San Miguel (France) and property of Compostela, with the church of Santa María del Salvador, with its possessions, its inheritances, its rights and all its dependencies, located in the bishopric of Lugo in the territory of Lemos near Mont Fort Property of Roncesvalles. The question has been made public in a presentation at the University of Navarra. You send me a copy of the transcript of the writing in Latin, French and Spanish.

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On September 23, 2020 at 7:59 p.m., I receive an email from Bertrand Saint Macary (president of the Association of Friends of the Camino de Santiago in the Atlantic Pyrenees) in which I realize that there is a deed of 10 July 1246, by which, there is an exchange of two properties between the Archbishop of Compostela and the Prior of Santa María de Roncesvalles, by which the Archbishop of Compostela and his chapter assign or exchange with the Prior and the community de Roncesvalles, the church of San Vicente with its hospital, its rights and all its dependencies, located next to the old San Miguel (France) and property of Compostela, with the church of Santa María del Salvador, with its possessions, its inheritances, its rights and all its dependencies, located in the bishopric of Lugo in the territory of Lemos near Mont Fort Property of Roncesvalles. The question has been made public in a presentation at the University of Navarra. You send me a copy of the transcript of the writing in Latin, French and Spanish.

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The Association of Friends of

Camino de Santiago in the Atlantic Pyrenees

has been the 2019 Elías Valiña Award,

in sharing with

the Jacobean Association of Almería, Camino Mozárabe

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ROZAVALES TOPONYMY
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Nicandro Ares Vázquez, eminent philologist and member of the Royal Galician Academy, among his many works has published in the journal Lucensia of the Libraries of the Diocesan Seminary of Lugo in 2006, a work entitled "Toponimia do Concello de Monforte de Lemos" in which deals with the toponymy of all the towns and places of the municipality of Monforte de Lemos and relates the toponymy of Rozavales with that of Roncesvalles.

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In the Rozavales toponymy, he writes the following, among other things:

<< In 1220 Alfonso IX sentenced in a cause that had the monastery of Santo Estevo de Ribas de Sil:

"Cum fratribus de Runciavalle , super quodam casale in Sauto"

In 1227 Marina Petri wrote in her text

"Ad cofrariam de Rozavales I solidum"

In 1257 the priest Petrus Iuliani wrote in his will:

"Ad confratriam sancte Marie de Rozavalles I solidum"

In another 13th century testament, Iohannes Lupi says:

" Ronciavallibus III solid command"

In 1413, Lourenzo Dominguez commanded the:

"Confrería de Santa María de Guadalupe and de Roçavales , senllos moravedis".

Ronca Vallis is cited in the index.

Some of these forms resemble Roncesvalles, a gorge in the Pyrenees >>.

And continues:

de Roncesvalles writes Machado [DOELP] << the previous form was therefore Ronçavales --- perhaps by Ronça [slvales. This is a hypothesis, but for Carolina Michaêlis it is the same as Roncavalis. In Roland's Song it is Roncesvals ... and hence the Spanish Roncesvalles and the Portuguese Roncesvales, which is the modern form. The origin of the Spanish Roncesvalles and the old French Roncesvals, modern Roncevaux, is in the Latin rumicis vallis, "valley of thorns" or "valley of azeda (s)". Note that in northern Portugal there was a town called Rozavales or Rozovalibus or Rozovallis in 1258 >>

.

DOELP = JP Machado, Portuguese Etymological Onomastic Dictionary, Lisbon
1992.

aceda: it is a "rumex" in Spanish "vinaigrette".

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(I am grateful to Francisco García Gondar for the location of the various works on toponymy)

PHILOLOGICAL STUDY OF GONZALO NAVAZA

The philologist and university professor Gonzalo Navaza, who has been a member of the Galician Government's Toponymy Commission, carried out a study on the toponymy of various Galician localities: "A intervenção régia na medieval galega toponímia. Os nomes de Afonso IX (1188 1230) " .

According to Gonzalo Navaza's thesis, the names of several Galician cities are not inherited from ancient toponymy, but medieval creations imposed by King Alfonso IX at the time of granting his forum or population charter. For Navaza, in the case of Rozavales there is no administrative act that imposes the change of name, but in fact the donation of the church of Santa María de Salvador to the Hospital de Roncesvalles caused the old parishioners of "Santa María de Salvadur" to become be known as "Roçavales".

The name of the place name of the Navarrese Pyrenees (in Portuguese Roncesvales, in Spanish Roncesvalles, Aragonese Ronzesbals, French Roncevaux, Basque Orreaga) in medieval Galician always presents the form Roçavales, interpreted as a compound of "roçar" and the plural of "vale" and so it is read in all medieval literature and notarial prose.

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Navaza continues to argue that the spelling "Salvador" with which the toponym appears in the Latin text of the donation of the church to the Roncesvalles Hospital actually corresponds to "Salvadur" which is still today the name of one of the localities of the Rozavales parishioners.

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It has been an important population in the very remote past as it is mentioned in the 6th century territorial divisions of the Lugo Cathedral and in the Liber Fidei of Braga (ad Cairocam [= Quiroga] in directum et alia parte levat se in Salvatur, CODOLGA ).

We can also consider an indication of the importance of the old place name the fact that the neighboring parish of Vilachá continues to be called Vilachá de Salvadur today in the oral (unofficial) language.

In an interview in the Voice of Galicia, Gonzalo Navaza states:

Rozavales is undoubtedly a 100% Jacobean place-name as it has a direct relationship with the pilgrimage to Santiago. And in Rozavales there was a pilgrim hospital governed by the Order of Roncesvalles.

 
OTHER INVESTIGATIONS CONFIRMING THAT
ROZAVALES IS ON A PILGRIMAGE ROUTE TO SANTIAGO
RELATIONSHIP OF SANTA MARÍA DE ROZAVALES WITH
THE MONASTERY OF SAN ZOILO DE CARRIÓN DE LOS CONDES

Carrión de los Condes is a municipality in the province of Palencia that is an important point on the Camino de Santiago. The French road crosses it from East to West and in it the Northern path, Ruta del Besaya, joins the French road.

The monastery of San Zoilo is located in Carrión de los Condes next to the French way to Santiago. Founded in 948, it was a first-rate religious and political center, where councils and courts were held. It also served as a residence for kings, some were even armed knights there. Already in the Middle Ages it was a pilgrimage center. He was characterized by allowing the pilgrims to consume bread and wine at their discretion and for his hospital care, which made him famous. The monastery has been declared a historical-artistic monument by Decree on June 3, 1931 and an Asset of Cultural Interest in 2012.

The ethnographer and expert in Romanesque art in the province of Lugo, Nicanor Rielo Carballo in the work "Artistic inventory of Lugo and its province", states that the monastery of San Zoilo de Carrión de los Condes exercised its jurisdiction over the church of Santa Maria de Rozavales.

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Inventario artistico lugo y provincia-1.
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STA. MARÍA DE ROZAVALES IN THE LIGHT OF THE ENSENADA CATASTRO

Rosa María Guntiñas Rodríguez , in her investigation in the Ensenada Cadastre on the congregation of Santa María de Rozavales, reaches the following conclusions , among others:

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The data provided by the Ensenada Cadastre reveal that it was the repopulating monks of the Middle Ages (Cluniac / S. Benito rule) and Hispano-Gothic families who had to repopulate the term of the parish after the Muslim invasion (711) and they would join Later, the Military Order of Santiago (Encomienda de la Barra / monks-caballeros / ruler of S. Agustín) that would occupy the most extreme and mountainous royal areas from the 12th-13th centuries accompanied by some families of peasant-cattlemen -warriors from Christian areas (migrants who came and went seeking refuge, means of subsistence and, likewise, willing to defend themselves from any possible threat).

Hence the presence of the Military Order of Santiago to which, in the 12th century, the kings of León and ecclesiastical magnates (Alfonso VII and the Bishop of Ourense, D. Adán) with the consent of the Benedictine abbots (Cluniac / Cistercian ), they give Santa María with their possessions, both to protect it from the "robbery" and looting of the nobility, as well as to carry out work of help and assistance on the roads or roads used by pilgrims to Santiago and travelers in general.

Various toponymics such as “Encrucillada” reveal that the parishioners had a network of paths that must have played an important role. La Encrucillada was and is, the place where the road coming from Vilachá and the carriage road from “Las Penelas” coming from “Barja” (Coto de Frojende-Villamarín) where the boat that allowed to cross the Sil river from Torbeo was located or Castro Caldelas towards Monforte or vice versa.

El Madoz, collects, in the middle of the 19th century, the existence of said road, specifying that it is bad but that it leads to a boat that allows crossing the river Sil.

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Next to the crossroads are the places of “Salvadur” (in which the Chapel of the Virgen de la O (parish church of S. Julián de Tor) had two houses) and “Rubín” (in which the Encomienda de la Barra (Military Order of Santiago) had two other houses).

The toponymic "Salvadur" seems to indicate that it was a small hostel-hospital or assistance to the needy and the pilgrim.

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In addition, since the congregation was close to the place where the boat that allowed to cross the Sil river was located, the presence of the Order of Santiago (Encomienda de la Barra) in the congregation is understood because, the Military Orders used to monitor the most dangerous places , such as the crossings of rivers and ports and, in general, the extensive royal domains of difficult occupation and control, in line with the popular religiosity that emerged in the Middle Ages, whose most visible form was the pilgrimage, according to the work of S. Augustine who developed the idea that life was just a path, a pilgrimage to the afterlife. In this work, the Cluniac monks in black clothing from the monastery of San Vicente del Pino also collaborated, who owned part of the fertile lands of the parishioners.

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On the other hand, certain expenditure sections of the year 1809 suggest that the contingent of French troops led by the French general Soult, went from Monforte de Lemos towards Torbeo passing through Rozavales and the carriage road of the "Penelas" to access the boat that would allow them to cross the river Sil, a boat that they destroyed.

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For all this, it can be said that Rozavales, like Vilachá, was one of those "sensitive" points of entry and exit from Galicia since ancient times, and one of the routes followed by soldiers, merchants and pilgrims, hence the presence of the Cluniacenses, Santiago and foreign settlers.

Thus, it seems clear that one of the so-called secondary routes of the Camino de Santiago would pass through the parishioners since, at least until the middle of the 19th century, that communication route that linked Torbeo (Castilla) and Castro Caldelas (Ourense) passed through it. / Portugal) with Monforte de Lemos (Lugo / Castilla) through a boat that allowed to cross the river Sil and connected with the “Encrucillada” of Rozavales where the road from Vilachá converged, (possibly an old Roman road, in whose margins would have arisen the places of "Cacabelos" and "Salvadur"), and the carriage road of the "Penelas", which skirted the place of "Rubín", coming from "Barja" (Villamarín).

PEÑAS DE SANTA LUCÍA
Peñas_de_Santa_Lucia.jpg

Adjacent to the Church of Rozavales, is the communal mountain of “Sta. Lucía ”or“ Peñas de Sta. Lucía ”from which, the entire environment of the parishioners is dominated for several kilometers around and there is also a direct view of the monastery of San Vicente del Pino and the Castle of the Condes de Lemos in Monforte. Las Peñas appear to be an ancient pagan temple and a place of pilgrimage and visit “renamed and Christianized”, possibly by monks from Cluny. It should be borne in mind that the feast of St. Lucia is celebrated on December 13, and in the Middle Ages, due to the accumulated delay by the Julian calendar, it coincided with the winter solstice, which was a period of renewal and of rebirth (to renew and rebirth the sun after its gradual death initiated in the summer solstice) which entailed celebrations and rituals in various peoples and cultures.

In the rocky wall there are carved longitudinal sections and inclined from right to left (not accessible) that have been baptized as "the stairs of the reverse" which leads to the intuition that their purpose was, possibly of a ritual nature, to "visualize" path of the Sun's rays at the dawn of the winter solstice, that is, the resurrection of the Sun god and the rebirth of Life after Death.

Therefore, Sta. María de Rozavales was already a pilgrimage route before being one of the secondary pilgrimage routes to Santiago.

What coincides with what is stated on the WEB "Cultura de Galicia" of the Xunta de Galicia: https://www.cultura.gal/es/ocupacion-historica-territorio

I put below a clipping of said article:

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On the other hand, according to a popular oral tradition, which has been maintained among the neighbors until the 20th century, the place of the Peñas de Santa Lucía, was baptized by its ancestors with the name of "As Mouras", a name related to the " mouros ”(typical characters of Galician legends). Mouros in Galicia means old or unknown and therefore fantastic. Consequently, the idea was transmitted, from generation to generation, that the place had been inhabited by people of different ethnic groups, cultures and religions. Likewise, the fact that the feminine and not the masculine is used to designate it, can be interpreted as that, it would be a kind of sanctuary attended by women (priestesses?) And / or dedicated to feminine divinities and related to the cult to death and immortal life in the Hereafter.

All of the above would justify the creation of the Church of Rozavales, given the custom of the Catholic Church to convert pagan holidays into Christian ones.

EXISTENCE OF TWO BOATS IN BARXA IN THE XVIII CENTURY

Rosa María Guntiñas Rodríguez , in her investigation in the Ensenada Cadastre on the parishioners of San Pedro Félix de Villamarín, reaches the following conclusions, among others:

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It must have been, as in Vilachá and Rozavales, the Cluniac monks of San Vicente del Pino and Spanish-German families who repopulated the parishioners of Villamarín after the Muslim invasion (711) and they would later be joined by the Cistercian monks of Montederramo and the Military Order of Santiago, possibly, accompanied by new families of peasant-rancher-warriors from Christian areas.

Thus, in Villamarín, as in Vilachá and Rozavales, all the protagonists who made the development of the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela possible in the Middle Ages were present. The Camino de Santiago, which, of course, would not have a unique route nor would it be used only by pilgrims, but by all those people who needed to travel and who, depending on the place of their residence and the particular interests of each of them, would follow different itineraries to Through the different existing, main or transversal communication channels and, in this area, the Cadastre provides data on Villamarín that corroborates those already provided in Vilachá and Rozavales.

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In the geographical term of Villamarín, the Coto de Frojende , lordship of the House of Losada , was included, to which the Madoz continues to refer, a century later, as the “Coto de Barja”, placing it in front of the “extensive and rich abbey and Torbeo preserve on a very high slope and populated with chestnut trees ”.

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The use of its riparian part had made it possible to have a fluvial "port" on the river Sil (meander of Barxa - A Cubela)

and some neighbors obtain some monetary resource such as "boatmen" and, possibly, also as olive growers and fishermen, the latter activity that the Cadastre does not collect but the Madoz does, which specifies that there was fishing for lampreys, fish, trout and eels.

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The General Interrogation of the congregation of Sta. Mª de Torbeo includes in Chapter 29 that

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there are in the “term (...) two boats that serve to

the transportation of this land

to that of Lemos, Quiroga and other parties,

one belonging to Mr. Isidro Rodríguez Casanova in the port of Torbeo but directly controlled by the priests of the parish "for whose recognition" he pays them 30 r., for "jurisdiction each year" and which is currently being rented by Domingo of the Fountain neighboring the place of Barja (...) and another in the same place that belongs to Benito de Aíra and José Rodríguez of the place of Castro de Abajo. The Interrogation confirms, therefore, the existence of a boat for the transport of people and livestock but, furthermore, the existence of a second one called the ¿proceedings? but it has little traffic as you can read in the attached document.

Photocopy of the page of the General Interrogation Book of the Torbeo preserve in which the existence of these two boats is recorded.

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REFERENCES OF THE XUNTA DE GALICIA TO THE WINTER ROAD
BY VILACHÁ AND ROZAVALES

The Xunta de Galicia through "Galicia Buen Camino" includes the Church of San Mamed de Vilachá within the Winter Way to Santiago.

The Xunta de Galicia through "Camino de Santiago" includes the Church of San Mamed de Vilachá within the Winter Way to Santiago.

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The Xunta de Galicia through "Galicia Buen Camino" includes the Church of Santa María da Penela within the Winter Way to Santiago.

The Xunta de Galicia through "Camino de Santiago" includes the Church of Santa María da Penela within the Winter Way to Santiago.

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LANDSCAPE AND NATURAL INTEREST OF THE ROUTE THROUGH LA CUBELA
SIL CANYON

The Sil Canyon, extends for the 25 km of the river prior to its mouth in the Miño in Os Peares. It is a deep gorge of rock and water, its slopes consist of two walls that in some areas rise up to five hundred meters above its waters. The river describes wide curves and meanders, which form some of the most magical corners in all of Galicia.

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The Sil canyon was produced over thousands of years due to two main factors: the erosion of the waters on the bed and geological processes associated with plate tectonics. The continental Atlantic climate predominates in the area between the provinces of Lugo and Orense, but in certain areas of the Canyon there is a different microclimate with Mediterranean characteristics. This microclimate allows Atlantic and Mediterranean plant species to develop: oaks and chestnut trees between large granite rocks on the shady slopes and on the sunny slopes the cork oaks, strawberry trees, lavender, rockrose, oregano, rosemary, thyme, the vine and even olive trees in quieter and more sheltered areas.

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Birds of prey such as the peregrine falcon or the black kite, even the endangered golden eagle, find a good nesting place in the high rocks on the steep slopes.
In addition, there is a rich fauna: wild boars, wolves, foxes, roe deer, otters, amphibians and reptiles.
The climatic conditions allow species such as ducks and herons to spend the winter in the Sil canyon.
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Despite the rugged terrain, thanks to the construction of terraces, this land has been worked since times prior to Roman times. The special characteristics of these slopes, their steep inclination, their orientation or the microclimate of the area are ideal for growing grapes. The Romans planted and worked the vine on the slopes of the canyon, later, hermit monks settled on these slopes and monasteries were built and continued to grow the vine and produce wines of excellent quality.
In addition, this steep orography is used for the production of electrical energy. Throughout the Canyon there are several reservoirs that make the water descend calm and is navigable by boats such as catamarans.
The Quiroga-San Clodio-Augas Mestas-Vilachá-Rozavales-Villamarín-Monforte routes
are the only routes that pass through
THE CANYON OF SIL
MEANDERS FROM "BARXA - A CUBELA"
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The area between the Barxa viewpoint and the mouth of the Xan Xoán river in the Sil river within the Monfortine riverbank (about 1500 m) has deserved the most praiseworthy comments from hikers who have traveled it. I highlight those made by an experienced hiker (more routes and less routines) who has made routes all over the world:

We reach the viewpoint of Barxa, on the spectacular meander of A Cubela. Without a doubt, an image without equal in the rest of Galicia. A place to delight yourself, pure essence of the Ribeira Sacra. The beauty of this place is unspeakable. The village of A Cubela is on the opposite shore, hanging on the slope that falls to the Sil, right in this place where the river describes a meander of almost 360º.
We would have stayed much longer, absorbed in contemplating this landscape, but the darkness approaches and forces us to continue.

Meandro de A Covela-desde La Cubela-WEB.

The meander of Barxa-A Cubela, is an area of geological interest in which, the river Sil through slates, mica-schists and quartzites forms a meander with an exceptional geometry and landscape. The Sil crosses a rocky substrate of variable hardness and has slowly but inexorably shaped the channel until it forms a 180º curve.

At the meander, the Sil meets quartzites, hard enough that it has to go around them in a curve. On the outer edge of the curve, the force of the water produces great erosion and on the inner edge of the curve, as the water has a low velocity, great sedimentation occurs. Currently the water is dammed, if it were not, with the passage of time (millions of years), the river would wear down the hard rocks and the current would continue along a more rectilinear bed leaving the meander. What is currently a beautiful meander would be transformed into a kind of semilunar pond that would later be filled with new sediments.

The Mediterranean vegetation is mixed with the Atlantic, there are holm oaks, cork oaks, strawberry trees, chestnut trees, oaks, laurels, ash trees, maples, rowan, rockrose, ... and many types of plants.

THE BARXA ECOSYSTEM (MONFORTE DE LEMOS)
A UNIQUE PLACE IN THE CANÓN DEL SIL

Consulted several dictionaries, the word Barxa is given the following meanings:

  • Vega, cultivated field next to a river.

  • Barge.

In the entire Sil Canyon there is no other place that meets these conditions. It is therefore a geographically unique area and also historically it has been a separate preserve from the parishioners that surround it. A preserve is a part of a territory in which the king delegated the exercise of justice in the first instance in the hands of another person or institution. In this case, the delegation of functions was made in the Losada family. In the Ensenada Cadastre it is called Coto de Frojende and in the Madoz it is called Coto de Barja.

In 1752, according to the Ensenada Cadastre, it is a lordship preserve, by royal alienation, of the parish priest with the right to exercise justice in the first instance in civil matters, while in criminal matters it was exercised by the Count of Lemos.

In a previous section it is shown that in said Coto there were two boats to cross the river, one of them being for the transport of people and livestock, that is to say a "barge" that was used by the French general Soult and his army to cross the river. Sil river.

The area is described by an experienced hiker (more routes and less routines) as follows:

In this zone of fusion of Mediterranean and Atlantic vegetation, small streams form humid, green and leafy environments. The path guides us to the village of Barxa, the beauty of the place is indisputable, surrounded by trees, on the Sil river. The next section has great charm. We walk along it close to the Sil, and amidst a huge variety of plant species that form an authentic botanical garden. The sounds of the fauna are innumerable, the birds sing happy melodies.
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SANTIAGO WAS A FRESHWATER FISHERMAN

In the Gospel according to Mark 1-16 to 1-20 it is said:

16 As Jesus was passing by the shore of the Sea of ​​Galilee, he saw Simon and his brother Andrew casting their nets into the sea, for they were fishermen.

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17 Jesus said to them, "Follow me and I will make you fishers of men."

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18 And immediately they left their nets and followed him.

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19 A little further on, Jesus saw James, the son of Zebedee, with his brother John, who were in his boat mending the nets.

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20 Jesus also called them, and they, leaving their father Zebedee in the boat with the helpers, followed him.

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SEA OF GALILEE

The Sea of ​​Galilee (Lake of Tiberias or Lake of Gennesaret), is a freshwater lake located in the Middle East Asian region that belongs to Israel.

Its altitude is below sea level (-214 m). It has 53 km of coastline. It occupies an area of ​​166 km2. Its average depth is 25.6 m and the maximum is 40 m.

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The MADOZ (Geographical-Statistical-Historical Dictionary of Spain and its Overseas Possessions) is a great work in 16 volumes published by Pascual Mahoz between 1845 and 1850, it describes all the populations of Spain as well as terms of the history of Spain. It is a very important reference for the consultations of geographers, historians, archaeologists and various researchers. Among other data, it contains interesting information on ruins, remains and possible archaeological sites, with the description that at that time was made of everything there was.

If you search for "San Félix de Villamarín" you will find that it is a parishioner with several localities, among them, Barja and Frojende. Within the production it is said that lampreys, fish, trout and eels are fished.

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The URL to consult the Madoz is the following (it takes time to load):

At present, the meanders of Barxa-A Cubela are located in the area of influence of the San Esteban reservoir, so you can fish for black-bass, carp and trout.

Consequently:

cross the river Sil by boat through Barxa-La Cubela,

fits like a glove with the mystique of the Camino de Santiago.

One can reflect on the profession of Santiago el Mayor and

on the call of Jesus Christ to make him a fisher of men.

 
 
 
 
 
OFFICIAL DECLARATION OF THE ROUTE THROUGH LA CUBELA-BARXA

In the previous sections it is shown that the route from Quiroga through San Clodio, Augas Mestas, A Cubela, crossing the river Sil by boat, Rozavales, Monforte de Lemos has been a pilgrim route to Santiago and probably the main route between Quiroga and Monforte of Lemos. Specifically, the route between San Clodio and A Cubela is fully signposted as Camino de Invierno and it was the route established by the team led by Ramón Izquierdo Perrín and the first to be signposted. Aida Menéndez Lorenzo has publicly confessed that she has fought with all her might to make this route the Official one, but ...

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With the competent Administrations we have encountered

To date, they have been unable to solve the issue of crossing the Sil, when in the Middle Ages there were up to two boats to cross the Sil available to walkers. They make an excuse that the reservoirs have increased the width of the river, and remain so wide, they seem to forget the technological development existing in the 21st century. Is there a hidden interest? It is also the only route that circulates through one of the most spectacular landscapes of the Ribeira Sacra. What will they think to say, if in 2021 the Ribeira Sacra is declared a World Heritage Site?

To alleviate such nonsense, on a separate page I will present the possible alternatives that can be followed.

TO OUR ILLUSTRATED AND EXCELLENT AUTHORITIES

WE DO NOT ASK FOR SOMETHING LIKE WHAT IS PRESENTED IN THE ATTACHED VIDEO IN AN ENVIRONMENT SIMILAR TO THE SIL CANYON, BUT ...

A BOAT IN A CUBELA TO CROSS THE SIL ...

A boat in July and August

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THE RIBEIRA SACRA CONSORTIUM WILL RECOVER TRADITION

OF THE STEP BOATS TO CROSS THE SIL AND THE MIÑO

En el párrafo final de la descripción general de la ruta alternativa entre Quiroga y Monforte se dice lo siguiente:

"Pero, en la actualidad, por tanto, no es posible pasar al otro lado del río y seguir el camino hacia Santiago. No obstante, se recomienda hacer una escapada por esta ruta, que le permitirá descubrir una de las más espectaculares vistas, el meandro que describe el río Sil, en el lugar de A Cubela, cuando se desciende desde Torbeo. Lugar, también, donde se inician los famosos e impresionantes cañones del río Sil".

NOTA

COMO EXPONGO EN LA PÁGINA "ALTERNATIVAS A LA ETAPA 5: QUIROGA - MONFORTE DE LEMOS", NO ES NECESARIO SUBIR HASTA TORBEO Y LUEGO BAJAR HASTA LA CUBELA PUES,

HAY UN CAMINO PEGADO AL SIL QUE VA DIRECTO A LA CUBELA.

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LOCAL AUTHORITIES DEMONSTRATE
RIBAS DE SIL CITY COUNCIL AGREEMENT

On October 22, 2020, the Plenary of the Ribas de Sil City Council unanimously agreed:

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FIRST: Provide support to the request of the Vilachá de Salvadur neighborhood association and the Torbeo neighborhood association for the recognition of the WINTER ROAD TO SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA AS IT PASSES THROUGH TORVEO - VILACHÁ - ROZAVALES.

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SECOND: Provide support to the initiatives necessary to defend, disseminate and promote the aforementioned route.

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THIRD: Request the relevant reports from the Xunta de Galicia for the official recognition of the Winter Way as it passes through Torbeo-Vilachá-Rozavales.

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FOURTH: Notify the Vilachá de Salvadur Neighbors Association, the Torbeo Neighbors Association, the Monforte City Council, the Puebla del Brollón City Council and the Department of Culture and Tourism of the Xunta de Galicia.

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PUEBLA DEL BROLLÓN CITY COUNCIL AGREEMENT

On October 23, 2020, the Plenary of the Puebla del Brollón City Council unanimously agreed:

 

FIRST: Provide support to the application of the Vilachá residents' association for the recognition of the WINTER ROAD TO SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA AS IT PASSES THROUGH TORBEO - VILACHÁ - ROZAVALES according to the historical documentation presented.

 

SECOND: Provide support to carry out the necessary initiatives to defend, disseminate and promote the aforementioned route.

 

THIRD: Collaborate in the request to the Xunta de Galicia of the pertinent reports for the official recognition of the Winter Way as it passes through Torbeo-Vilachá-Rozavales.

 

FOURTH: Notify the Vilachá de Salvadur Neighbors Association, the Torbeo Neighbors Association, the Monforte City Council, the Puebla del Brollón City Council and the Department of Culture and Tourism of the Xunta de Galicia.

Certificado acuerdo Puebla ddel BrollonW
AGREEMENT OF THE MONFORTE DE LEMOS CITY COUNCIL

On November 30, 2020, the Monforte de Lemos City Council Plenary agreed by 12 votes in favor and 3 abstentions:

approve the points of the proposal of the Vilachá Neighborhood Association.

Acuerdfo en Monforte-Voz de Galicia-WEB.

THE PROVINCIAL COUNCIL OF LUGO

SUPPORT THE ROUTE THROUGH VILACHÁ AND ROZAVALES

THE RIBEIRA SACRA CONSORTIUM WILL RECOVER TRADITION

OF THE STEP BOATS TO CROSS THE SIL AND THE MIÑO

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YO VOY SOÑANDO CAMINOS

(ANTONIO MACHADO)

Yo voy soñando caminos

de la tarde. ¡Las colinas

doradas, los verdes pinos,

las polvorientas encinas!...

¿Adónde el camino irá?

Yo voy cantando, viajero

a lo largo del sendero...

-la tarde cayendo está-.

"En el corazón tenía

la espina de una pasión;

logré arrancármela un día:

"ya no siento el corazón".

Y todo el campo un momento

se queda, mudo y sombrío,

meditando. Suena el viento

en los álamos del río.

Mi cantar vuelve a plañir: